Child Development: Age Ranges

Tamariki learn in their own way and at their own pace, therefore these resources are designed with flexibility in mind so tamariki of all ages and developmental levels can interact with them in one way or another. However, for ease each resource is broken down into four broad and over lapping sections; provocations, foundational, extension and circle time. These sections loosely correspond to the age ranges described in Te Whāriki and are explained in the table below.  


Infants (0 – 18 months)

Provocation. Foundational

Toddlers (1 -3 years)

Provocation. Foundational. Circle time

Young Tamariki

(2.5 years – School entry)

Provocation. Foundational. Extended.

Circle time


Tamariki as Individual Learners

SPCA’s Resources for Early Learning are grounded in a holistic view of human development and are designed to be woven into individual settings in a way that reflects their learning community and the needs of individual tamariki. We acknowledge the importance of respectful and responsive relationships in education, understanding kaiako know their tamariki best, their prior knowledge, learning needs and goals. The resources provide a framework for humane education. Kaiako can pick and choose what and how they engage with the resources to ensure enriching experiences and valued learning.


Dispositional Learning

SPCA’s Resources for Early Learning support tamariki in the development of knowledge as they continue to make sense of their world and the human and non-human animals in it. Through meaningful experiences tamariki develop skills, capabilities, positive attitudes and values. Together, knowledge, skills and attitudes combine as dispositions, which are tendencies to respond to situations in particular ways. With the support of SPCA’s Resources for Early Learning it is our hope tamariki will develop positive dispositions towards animals and promote action for animal welfare.


Working Theories

SPCA’s Resources for Early Learning encourage tamariki to inquire into, puzzle over and build upon evolving ideas, working theories and understandings of animal welfare.


Kaiako Lead vs. Tamariki Directed

SPCA’s Resources for Early Learning provide opportunity for both kaiako lead and tamariki directed experiences. Learning during the early years is a highly integrated, varied, and dynamic process. Kaiako are encouraged to adapt the resources and how they are delivered to ensure intentional teaching and open-ended experiences. The program contributes innovative ideas, provocation and knowledge for animal welfare learning. Tamariki are given opportunities to play, wonder, question, experiment and problem solve.